LNG boat

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

All the benefits of natural gas without the pipeline

Liquefied natural gas remains the perfect solution for large energy users

Large energy users rely on having a secure, cost effective, energy source, which they can depend on at all times. Calor Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a lower carbon fuel, available anywhere in Ireland. LNG offers a new economical energy alternative, which is significantly cleaner, to larger industrial energy users operating away from the natural gas network.

LNG in brief

Prima LNG_loading Dunkerque terminal

What is LNG?

LNG stands for Liquefied Natural Gas and refers to natural gas that has been cooled to -161.5 °C to turn it into liquid. Typically, LNG is 85 to 95-plus percent methane, along with a few percent ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane molecules. Although a fossil fuel, it’s cleaner than other natural gases, producing 40% less CO2 than coal and 30% less than oil. LNG gas is non-toxic, non-corrosive, colorless, and odorless. LNG will NOT burn as a liquid. 

How LNG is transported?

Once processed, LNG takes up 600 times less space than gas and weighs less than water. This makes it easy to transport, typically by sea in heavily insulated, temperature-controlled tanks that keep the gas in a liquid state at around -162⁰C. The LNG container ship can be powered by boil-off gas.

Where does LNG come from?

LNG is made from natural gas extracted from fields located predominantly in countries such as Algeria, Australia, Nigeria, Norway, Qatar and the USA. To create LNG, natural gas must go through several stages of processing at onshore or offshore Liquefied Natural Gas plants.

The role of LNG in businesses

The most important function of LNG for businesses is to make natural gas transportation from origin to endpoint easier, by preserving it to its liquid level in extremely insulated tanks. Liquefying natural gas is therefore a way to move natural gas long distances when pipeline transport is not feasible. For businesses in geographically remote locations that are often facing the challenge that there is no grid access available, LNG provides a reliable energy solution.

LNG value chain

What is the LNG value chain process?

  • Purification – removing unwanted gases
  • Liquefaction – the gas is cooled and turned into liquid
  • Transportation – usually by sea
  • Storage – in specialist tanks
  • Regasification - raising the liquid’s temperature
  • Odorising – for leak detection
lng tank 3

What is LNG used for?

LNG, Liquid Natural Gas, is used across commercial and industrial sectors and where natural gas isn’t available. It’s commonly used as heating fuel for central and water heating, for power generation on production sites and in the transportation sector to fuel cars, trucks, transit buses, motorbikes and ships.

  • Food and Beverage industry 

  • Ceramics and Glass manufacturer

  • Textile and Apparel industry 

  • Aggregates and Asphalt producers

  • Chemicals and Fertilizer manufacturer 

Advantages of LNG

Why LNG?

Among LNG’s benefits, it’s better than any other fossil fuel for the environment and easier and cheaper to transport and store. It brings clean, reliable energy to businesses in areas that gas pipelines do not reach. 

LNG is cleaner than other fossil fuels and offers a reliable supply in areas where pipeline capacity is limited. It provides reliable and efficient energy to economies around the world, which makes it an essential fuel for the energy transition. 
One of the strongest LNG benefits is that it’s better than any other fossil fuel for the environment. Burning natural gas releases significantly less CO2, NOx and SOx and virtually no ash or particulates. And as LNG evaporates rapidly when exposed to the air, it leaves no residue on water or soil.

The process of cooling natural gas into liquid form shrinks the volume so LNG takes up around 600 times less space than in its gaseous form and weighs even less than water.
The liquefaction process makes it possible to transport natural gas to places pipelines do not reach, bringing clean, reliable energy to Ireland’s off-grid businesses. 
LNG supplies the commercial and industrial sector with energy for purposes as diverse as manufacturing products, generating electricity, and using it as fuel for heavy-duty and other vehicles. 

Did you know?

The global LNG market is perhaps the fastest growing energy market world-wide, with a rise in demand of 25-50% by 2030.

Frequently asked questions

LNG is an energy source found in the earth’s crust. It has been created over millions of years from the transformation of natural materials such as plankton and algae. It is literally pumped from the centre of the earth. As the gas is drilled it’s cooled to -126.7⁰C and becomes liquid. LNG is composed almost exclusively of methane.
As we move to renewable sources of energy, we will experience fluctuations in supply – there’s less solar energy when the sun isn’t shining and less wind power when the wind isn’t blowing. LNG can act as a backup to green energy ensuring continuity of supply during the energy transition.
LNG is inherently safer than oil-based fuels being non-toxic and non-corrosive. Its high combustion temperature of 650°C, twice that of diesel, means LNG cannot spontaneously combust. LNG is lighter than air, so in the event of a leak, it would immediately rise above possible ignition sources. 
LNG is better for the environment, producing 27% fewer carbon emissions compared with petrol, 12% against diesel and up to 97% when using methane from a renewable source . LNG is a popular marine fuel as it has virtually no sulphur content and it creates lower NOx emissions than oil or diesel. 
LNG gives drivers a more comfortable driving experience as noise and vibrations are reduced by 50% in gas-fuelled trucks. LNG trucks meet Piek standards governing noise emission during loading and unloading, particularly important for accessing city centre locations and night-time distribution. 
While drivers must wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), filling an LNG tank is as quick and easy as filling a diesel tank. Analysis shows, on average, drivers of LNG trucks spend around 7 minutes at the fuel stop from entry to exit with the refuelling process taking about 4 minutes.

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